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Riina succeeded Luciano Leggio as head of the Corleonesi criminal organisation in the mid 1970s and achieved dominance through a campaign of violence, which caused police to target his rivals. Riina had been a fugitive since the late 1960s after he was indicted on a murder charge. He was less vulnerable to law enforcement's reaction to his methods, as the policing removed many of the established chiefs who had traditionally sought influence through bribery. In violation of established Mafia codes, Riina advocated the killing of women and children, and killed blameless members of the public solely to distract law enforcement agencies. Hit man Giovanni Brusca estimated he murdered between 100 and 200 people on behalf of Riina. Although this scorched-earth policy neutralized any internal threat to Riina's position, he increasingly showed a lack of his earlier guile by bringing his organisation into open confrontation with the state. As part of the Maxi Trial of 1986, Riina was sentenced to life imprisonment in absentia for Mafia association and multiple murder. After 23 years living as a fugitive, he was captured in 1993, provoking a series of indiscriminate bombings of art galleries and churches by his organisation. His lack of repentance subjected him to the stringent Article 41-bis prison regime until his death on 17 November 2017.
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Riina died on 17 November 2017, one day after his 87th birthday, while in a medically induced coma after two operations in the prison unit of the Maggiore Hospital in Parma. The specific cause of death was not revealed. At the time of his death, he was still considered to be the head of the Cosa Nostra according to a magistrate. Riina was refused a public funeral by the church and Archbishop Michele Pennisi; he was privately buried in his hometown of Corleone.
The fundamental objective of the mediation is not, in fact, to verify guilt, but to analyze and understand the concrete reasons for the crime and the needs of the relative response, in such a way to elaborate, together with the parts, solutions capable of satisfying and mutually engage them. It allows for the expression of feelings and confrontation on the reasons for the conflict; it provides the necessary information to arrive at a practical solution to promote, if possible, compensation or repair or, at least, mutual satisfaction through a symbol of reconciliation. Mediation also allows the offended person to express their point of view, state of mind, needs and difficulties related to the experience, eventually making requests for reparation of the damage suffered; and allowing, in this way, the child offender to mature his/her state of mind, understanding the consequences of the fact and the sense of their own responsibility, as well as to repair, if possible, the damage done. Both parties must, therefore, reserve an adequate space and the time required to manage firsthand, the consequences of the crime, beyond that of obtaining evidence relating to the liability of the persons involved. Indicatively, one can say that penal mediation in the field of minors: satisfies the actors involved; reduces the degree of recidivism of the offender; helps the victim to overcome the trauma; compensates the damage to the victim; deflates the workload of the judicial system constituting a possible alternative to criminal prosecution and detention. In extreme synthesis:
During the hybrid event (online and in person), academics, national government and international organisations will share knowledge on the connections between sustainable consumption and production and ecosystem restoration and showcase good practices from the private sectors, civil society, women, and youth groups.
Forests and woodlands are also important stores of carbon dioxide and soak up 30 per cent of emissions from industry and fossil fuels. This is why UNEP supports the Green Gigaton Challenge, an ambitious public-private partnership to catalyse funds to fight deforestation, with the target of reducing 1 gigaton (or 1 billion metric tonnes) of emissions by 2025.